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juvenile justice reform 2019

In vetoing the bill, the governor indicated that he agreed with the principles behind it, but thought it would undermine the proposed Department of Youth and Community Restoration. We are the nation's most respected bipartisan organization providing states support, ideas, connections and a strong voice on Capitol Hill. For population statistics, see kidsdata, “Child Population, by Race/Ethnicity: San Francisco County, 2018,” database (Palo Alto, CA: Lucile Packard Foundation for Children's Health). New Jersey has been named as the Anne E. Casey Foundation’s Model Site for statewide implementation of JDAI, and as of 2019, all 21 counties participate in this statewide reform initiative, which has changed the face of juvenile justice in New Jersey. Ibid. changes concerning the juvenile justice system.” This “Early Impacts” report, which comes approximately a year and a half after the effective date of “An Act Relative to Criminal Justice Reform”2: • Provides a big-picture look at how our juvenile justice system is currently utilized – how The Juvenile Justice System report from July 2019 said that 222 youths were committed to juvenile justice commission facility with … A 2018 report showed that the measure was three times as likely to impact Black youth—who were indicted on these charges at a rate five times higher than their percentage of the population—and that Latinx and Native American youth were also disproportionately represented in the system. Regulations may be put in place for immediate isolation of a young person if they pose a danger to themselves or others. The package ultimately redefines “who is considered to be a juvenile or an adult as they make their way through the criminal justice process, including how an individual is to be detained, tried, and transported. See Marion County, Oregon, “Measure 11,” https://perma.cc/F5CS-J7KY. Among other things, the legislation will The bill, which represents the first major reform to Oregon’s juvenile justice system in decades, now heads to the Oregon House. Beginning in 2013, however, California took a hard look at its system and passed a series of reforms banning life without parole sentences for youth, rolling back Proposition 21’s provisions allowing prosecutors to file youth cases directly in adult court, and barring youth under 16 from being tried in adult court entirely. Montana law now places restrictions on when a DNA sample may be taken by a police officer. Youth of color have accounted for almost 90% of the drop in detention center population. From raising the age at which children may be tried in adult court to re-examining the conditions under which they can be held in custody, jurisdictions across the country have considered ways to address the unique needs of children and young adults in the criminal justice system. Arkansas HB 1755, Maryland HB1001, Montana HB 763, Nebraska LB 686 and New Jersey AB 314, Due Process Rights and Competency At least two states enacted laws in 2019 related to improving the education of students in detention facilities. California made changes to fundamentally alter the philosophical underpinnings of the state’s juvenile justice system from a focus on punishment to a focus on support and assistance, with the state’s governor, Gavin Newsom, vowing at the beginning of 2019 to “end juvenile imprisonment . Michigan legislators adopted 18 measuresas part of a “Raise the Age” legislative package which increases the age of criminal responsibility to 18, so that cases involving 17-year-olds will be handled in the juvenile justic… For population statistics, see kidsdata, “Child Population, by Race/Ethnicity: San Francisco County, 2018,” database (Palo Alto, CA: Lucile Packard Foundation for Children's Health), https://perma.cc/Y82Y-4NWD; and Allen Nance and Jose Luis Perla, City and County of San Francisco Juvenile Probation Department Monthly Report for January 2019 (San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Juvenile Probation Department, 2019), 13, https://perma.cc/6GRA-X7Q3. In addition, the county had 35 percent fewer referrals to the juvenile legal system for low-level or misdemeanor offenses over the same time period. If the parent or guardian is not present, officers must ensure that school personnel, including, a school social worker, a school psychologist, a school nurse, a school guidance counselor, or any other mental health professional, are present during the questioning. Between 1980 and 2016, arrests in the state declined by 84 percent for juveniles while decreasing much more slowly or even increasing for other age groups. Campaign for Youth Justice, “2019 Legislative Reforms After Raise the Age,” press release (Washington, DC: Campaign for Youth Justice, May 20, 2019), https://perma.cc/AS9W-3QGA; and Anne Teigen, “Juvenile Age of Jurisdiction and Transfer to Adult Court Laws,” National Conference of State Legislatures, January 11, 2019, https://perma.cc/6835-3GQQ. Juvenile Justice Reform in New Jersey. Loudenback, “California Governor Newsom Vetoes Effort,” 2019. Overview. Since 2012, a growing number of states have used data and research to inform sweeping policy changes that aim to improve juvenile justice systems. Sammy Caiola, “Is Gov. King County (Seattle), Washington, continued its drive to reduce youth detention to zero. New procedures for juvenile probation were also adopted. The Juvenile Justice Reform Committee was established per Senate Bill19-108 to enact policy recommendations that aim to strengthen public safety and improve outcomes for youth in the juvenile justice system. Advocates mostly hailed the decision, noting that “when the systems are connected to agencies that have an emphasis on health, healing and a connection to resources that can assist in that . The original Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act was enacted in 1974 and was last reauthorized in 2002. Jill Tucker and Joaquin Palomino, “Vanishing Violence,” San Francisco Chronicle, March 21, 2019, https://projects.sfchronicle.com/2019/vanishing-violence/. The new law requires that federal Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and the states collect additional data to get a better understanding of youth in the system. The law includes a provision to allow youth to be transferred back to juvenile court from adult court if the prosecutor and defense counsel agree to the transfer. Five states—Arkansas, Maryland, Montana, Nebraska and New Jersey—enacted statutes limiting or prohibiting solitary confinement. In Maine, juvenile case records must be kept confidential and only disclosed, disseminated, inspected or obtained by certain parties or by court order. Principles of Effective Juvenile Justice Policy. Commitment to secure juvenile facilities for youth who have been adjudicated delinquent has been steadily declining since 1999. To help Arkansas meet that challenge, Sen. Missy Irvin has filed Senate Bill 506 to extend the tenure and work of the Youth Justice Reform Board (which sunsets in July of 2019) so that it can continue to help guide the reform effort. The new law, which was backed by leaders from the Oregon Department of Corrections—but opposed by the Oregon District Attorneys Association—also eliminates life without parole sentences for juveniles. The JJRC will “[use] a data-driven approach to develop a statewide framework of policies to invest in strategies to increase public safety and reduce [youth recidivism], research best practices for the treatment of juveniles who are subject to the criminal and juvenile justice systems, and identify and make recommendations to limit or otherwise mitigate risk factors that contribute to juvenile contact with the criminal and juvenile justice systems.” If a young person’s record is not eligible for automatic sealing, the young person or his or her parent can file a motion to have it sealed six months after the case has been closed or when the juvenile has reached the age of majority, whichever is sooner. A key factor in state juvenile justice reform efforts signed into law by Gov. California SB 439 (2018), https://perma.cc/A3BR-A45C. Maryland SB 856 (2019), https://perma.cc/K3PZ-YAYG; Maryland HB 606 (2019), https://perma.cc/24ME-WV4G; and Maryland Department of Juvenile Services, “Juvenile Justice Reform Council,” https://perma.cc/3TNP-CVM4. From now until New Year's Day, gifts to Vera will have double the impact. Over the past decade, Black and Latinx juveniles made up 86 percent of those tried in adult court statewide—and, in Los Angeles County, that number was 96 percent. Ibid. The remaining objectives are to prevent justice system contact, divert youth who are already in the system to more appropriate resources, support justice-involved youth to improve family and community relationships, and align the multiple systems with which youth are in contact to improve their odds of accessing the right resource at the right time. The law states that secure detention shall be used only when it is determined to be necessary based on the child's assessed risk to public safety or to secure the appearance of the child in court. April 2019 Juvenile Services Division Outcomes: The following outcomes were created by the Juvenile Services Division to include juvenile justice reform elements found in national research. Commitment to secure juvenile facilities for youth who have been adjudicated delinquent has been steadily declining since 1999. Community-based alternative services are required to be evidence-based, developmentally appropriate, family-centered, strengths-based and trauma-informed. Illinois was a leader for marijuana legislation in 2019. Proponents had hoped that stiffer costs for incarceration would encourage counties to keep justice-involved youth out of state detention and near their homes and communities, improving their chances for success. Maryland also prohibits anyone under age 18 from being put in restrictive housing unless a director finds clear and convincing evidence that the young person poses an immediate danger to himself/herself, others or staff. Similarly, Tennessee passed reforms clarifying when a court may place a child on diversion and what conditions, including the completion of substance abuse and mental health treatment services, may be required for the completion of diversion. OJJDP must now collect data on ethnicity, along with race and gender, for its annual report on youth taken into custody. Utah expanded protections related to juvenile competency by making developmental immaturity a factor in findings of incompetency to stand trial. Oregon SB 1008 (2019), https://perma.cc/2FGK-WUB2; and Casey Leins, “Oregon Reforms Its Juvenile Justice System,” U.S. News & World Report, July 23, 2019, https://perma.cc/L5A7-YB5T. Caiola, “Substantial or Symbolic?” 2019; and Evan Sernoffsky and Joaquin Palomino, “Locked Up, Left Behind,” San Francisco Chronicle, October 3, 2019, https://www.sfchronicle.com/bayarea/article/California-once-sent-thousands-of-juveniles-to-14480958.php. Caiola, “Substantial or Symbolic?” 2019; and Evan Sernoffsky and Joaquin Palomino, “Locked Up, Left Behind,”. County Will Explore Possibility of Separating Youth from Probation,” Chronicle of Social Change, August 14, 2019, https://perma.cc/DBH9-6SWU. Ibid Juvenile Justice Reform. The reforms reflect much of the knowledge that has been gained through research and science over the past decade and strengthen the Act’s core protections for youth in the juvenile justice system. Anyone under 18 will be treated as a minor in juvenile court and receive the rehabilitation services that are offered in the state’s juvenile justice system; prosecutors, however, may still charge juveniles as adults for certain violent offenses. For state plans, states are now required to collect data on: 1. the use of restraints and isolation; 2. youth who have other disabilities in addition to learning disabilities; 3. status offense charges filed and youth secur… As Monique Morris explored in her 2019 documentary Pushout: The Criminalization of Black Girls in Schools, children and young adults of color—especially Black children—as well as LGBTQ youth are disproportionately impacted by justice system contact. In April 2018, the Legislature passed An Act Relative to Criminal Justice Reform, which created the Juvenile Justice Policy and Data (JJPAD) Board under M.G.L. The county’s strategy calls for a series of steps to reduce youth justice involvement, with the first being to address institutional racism and bias in the system: in 2018, youth of color were 6.6 times as likely to be detained as white youth. Colorado HB 1335, Nebraska LB 354, Maine HB 1135, Tennessee HB 168, Texas HB 1760, Wyoming HB 44. Each year, every correctional unit must report to the governor the number of people put in restrictive housing by age, race, gender and basis for restrictive housing. Over the past decade, Black and Latinx juveniles made up 86 percent of those tried in adult court statewide—and, in Los Angeles County, that number was 96 percent. This website uses cookies to analyze traffic and for other purposes. In the years since, Oregon has had the second-highest juvenile incarceration rate in the nation. The court may not disclose or disseminate records unless the juvenile is notified and given the opportunity to be heard. The law also requires a six-week summer enrichment program focusing on language arts and mathematics be available for students who have been detained in the summer months. New Jersey passed the “Isolated Confinement Restriction Act” in 2019, and it goes into effect in August 2020. Michigan’s Raise the Age legislation was incorporated into an 18-bill youth justice package that includes Senate Bills 84, 90, 93, 97, 99, 100, 101, and 102, as well as House Bills 4133, 4134, 4135, 4136, 4140, 4142, 4143, 4145, 4443, and 4452, all from the 2019 legislative session. As part of the initiative, the county is replacing its current youth detention center with a facility that it describes as “more developmentally appropriate”—but which opponents say is still a jail. Michigan legislators adopted 18 measuresas part of a “Raise the Age” legislative package which increases the age of criminal responsibility to 18, so that cases involving 17-year-olds will be handled in the juvenile justic… King County, “Zero Youth Detention Dashboard.” Ibid. Arkansas’ law, which will take effect in July 2020, requires all courts to implement diversion agreements based on the use of validated assessment tools, and also mandates the use of risk assessment tools in determining whether commitment of juveniles to the Department of Youth Services (DYS) is appropriate. We supported research, training, practical interventions, poli… Pushout: The Criminalization of Black Girls in Schools (Women in the Room Productions, 2019). . Since 2014, The Marshall Project has been curating some of the best criminal justice reporting from around the web. Governor Newsom Announces his Intention to End Juvenile Imprisonment in California as We Know It. However, more work needs to be done before we can truly have a therapeutic, supportive and equitable juvenile justice … However, a few have cautioned that the move needs to be more than “simply a change in the letterhead.” A five-year plan to transform juvenile justice systems in Los Angeles County will be based on a “care-first” model, the Los Angeles Times reports. Jeremy Loudenback, “L.A. At least two states enacted laws that increase due process protections and one clarified competency procedures for juveniles. The law is named after a 13-year-old boy who took his own life in a Louisiana detention facility. North Carolina enacted the “Raise the Age Modification” which builds on its 2017 reforms. Other places on the West Coast made juvenile justice reforms in 2019. Montana’s new law defines restrictive housing as confinement to a cell for at least 22 hours a day and limits the use of restrictive housing over 24 hours unless it is “necessary to protect the youth or others.” An administrator must review any restrictive housing assignments within four hours regardless of weekends or holidays. Roberta Phillip-Robbins and Ben Scissors, Youth and Measure 11 in Oregon (Salem, OR: Oregon Council on Civil Rights, 2018), 28, https://perma.cc/WRG2-M3PK. In return for compliance with these core requirements, the statute authorizes federal funding for states to use in their juvenile justice systems. Ibid. The Center for Juvenile Justice Reform supports the development of leaders in juvenile justice and related systems of care through our Certificate Programs. Oregon SB 1008 (2019); Leins, “Oregon Reforms Its Juvenile,” 2019; Nichanian, “Oregon Overhauls Its Youth Justice System,” 2019; and Crombie, “Oregon Senate Approves Sweeping Juvenile Justice Reforms,” 2019. The court may not disclose or disseminate records unless the juvenile is notified and given the opportunity to be heard. In what would be a seismic shift in how Connecticut deals with children who run afoul of the law, lawmakers and officials spearheading juvenile justice reform will consider the creation of a … Generally speaking, state juvenile justice systems handle cases involving defendants under the age of 18.2 (This is not a hard-and-fast rule, however; every state makes exceptions for younger people to be prosecuted as adults in some situations or for certain offenses.3) Of the 43,000 youth in juvenile facilities, more than two-thirds (69%) are 16 or older. But he vetoed a bill that would have increased the fees that counties must pay the state to send youth to state detention. The juvenile justice system should not be the gatekeeper to services for at-risk youth. Washington, D.C. 20001 The new law will ensure that anyone under 18 years old will be treated as a minor in juvenile court and receive the rehabilitation services that are offered in the juvenile justice system to reduce recidivism, such as those practices outlined in the Youth Rehabilitation Services Act.” Office of Governor Gretchen Whitmer, “Governor Whitmer Signs Bipartisan Bills to Raise the Age for Juvenile Offenders,” press release (Lansing, MI: Office of Governor Gretchen Whitmer, October 31, 2019), https://perma.cc/GNN3-JABM. While the federal government oversaw the rocky rollout of 2018’s FIRST STEP Act and worked to implement increasingly draconian immigration policies, state and local governments tackled criminal justice reform: transforming money bail, shuttering jails, legalizing marijuana, restoring voting rights to those with conviction histories, and rethinking juvenile justice. First Step Act: Bipartisan agreement is reached on U.S. sentencing reform In December 2018, President Trump signed into law the Juvenile Justice Reform Act of 2018, reauthorizing and substantially amending the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974 (JJDP Act).OJJDP will work with states to implement the new requirements. Juvenile Justice System Reform Youth Justice Reform: Senate Bill 1008 (2019) Oregon Senate Bill 1008 was signed into law by Governor Kate brown on July 22, 2019. Le ministère de la Justice a pour mission d'assurer la primauté du droit au sein de la société québécoise et maintenir, au Québec, un système de justice qui soit à la fois digne de confiance et intègre afin de favoriser le respect des droits individuels et collectifs. Denver, CO 80230 Support legislation to increase the age of adult criminal responsibility from 17 to 18, and monitor funding for students in Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Programs. The “Juvenile Justice Reform Act of 2018” reauthorizes the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA)—the cornerstone federal law that has promoted improvements in state juvenile justice systems since it was first adopted in 1974. The law also adds a level of judicial review before transferring young people to adult prisons. Sammy Caiola, “Is Gov. The new law provides requirements for the evaluation of competency for a young person and provides instructions to forensic evaluators, courts, and others involved with the prosecution, evaluation and adjudication of the young person. Camille96 on 08/13/2019: Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform identifies and prioritizes strategies and policies to effectively facilitate reform of the juvenile justice system and develop an implementation plan for OJJDP. By Casey Leins, Staff Writer July 23, 2019, at … The reorganization will be bolstered by the January 2020 implementation of a 2018 law that sets the minimum age for prosecution even in juvenile court—except in cases of murder and rape—at 12 years old. At least six states made changes in 2019 to make it easier for juveniles to maintain the confidentiality of records or to seal or expunge their records. See for example Dana Goldstein, “Who’s a Kid?” The Marshall Project, October 27, 2016, https://perma.cc/2JVS-GNHT; Clarice Silber, “New Prison Unit Opens to Help Young Female Inmates,” Connecticut Mirror, July 9, 2018, https://perma.cc/YNA8-ZLV8; Robert Hayes, “Young Offender Unit Opens at Middlesex Jail & House of Correction,” Wilmington Apple, February 16, 2018, https://perma.cc/5XQW-JEFL; and Vera Institute of Justice, “Restoring Promise,” https://perma.cc/E69F-8E2Y. Experts Say It’s a Wait-And-See,” Capital Public Radio, January 24, 2019, https://perma.cc/83LV-ELRB. While the federal government oversaw the rocky rollout of 2018’s FIRST STEP Act and worked to implement increasingly draconian immigration policies, state and local governments tackled criminal justice reform: transforming money bail, shuttering jails, legalizing marijuana, restoring voting rights to those with conviction histories, and rethinking juvenile justice. The law, which went into effect January 1, 2020, creates a presumption that these youth will be tried in juvenile court and requires prosecutors to request a hearing before their cases can be heard in adult court. Washington amended its law to keep out of detention those charged with status offenses—conduct that would not be a crime if committed by an adult, but for which juveniles may be adjudicated, including truancy, curfew violations, incorrigibility, running away, and underage possession and/or consumption of alcohol or tobacco. The bill — sponsored in the Senate by Sen. Cam Ward, R-Alabaster — aims to keep low-level offenders at home instead of in state facilities, but similar bills have failed in the Legislature … Prosecutors must request a hearing to determine whether or not a young person should be tried as an adult. But there is still progress to be made. This has left youth detention centers largely empty. For years, Sunset Youth Services has been working with the Juvenile Justice Providers Association and other community leaders to promote restorative-justice practices and reform a punitive system that mirrors prison and sets kids on a path to future incarceration. Juvenile justice reform continues to be a bipartisan issue across government branches. 22 “We are moving from a primary focus on compliance to emphasizing rehabilitating our youth to achieve the best public safety outcomes. halfway through their sentences to determine whether they can be released from prison under community supervision Arkansas now prohibits any young person who is detained from being placed in punitive isolation or solitary confinement for more than 24 hours unless a physical or sexual assault has been committed by the young person or there is an imminent or direct threat to the young person, other detainees or staff. The record can also be sealed automatically if the charges are dismissed. The Juvenile Justice Reform Council, as it is called, included Egan and Maryland Juvenile Services Secretary Sam Abed. tree trimming kirkland wa. The law also provides that young people who successfully complete diversion as an alternative to being charged with an offense shall have any law enforcement or school record expunged automatically. The lead sponsors on the legislation were Senator Missy Irvin and Representative Charlene Fite. County Will Explore Possibility of Separating Youth from Probation,”. See Marion County, Oregon, “Measure 11,”. Approximately 400 bills have already been introduced related to juvenile justice in 2019 nationwide. The JJDPA expired in 2007 and […] While the federal government oversaw the rocky rollout of 2018’s FIRST STEP Act and worked to implement increasingly draconian immigration policies, state and local governments tackled criminal justice reform: transforming money bail, shuttering jails, legalizing marijuana, restoring voting rights to those with conviction histories, and rethinking juvenile justice. The law also expanded opportunities to divert youth from the juvenile justice system and limit the use of detention to only young people who pose a safety risk to themselves or the community. Also see King County, Washington, “King County Zero Youth Detention: Taking a Public Health Approach,” September 24, 2019, https://perma.cc/3S33-L6LT. The new law will ensure that anyone under 18 years old will be treated as a minor in juvenile court and receive the rehabilitation services that are offered in the juvenile justice system to reduce recidivism, such as those practices outlined in the Youth Rehabilitation Services Act.” Office of Governor Gretchen Whitmer, “Governor Whitmer Signs Bipartisan Bills to Raise the Age for Juvenile Offenders,” press release (Lansing, MI: Office of Governor Gretchen Whitmer, October 31, 2019). Anyone convicted of a crime committed when they were younger than 18 will get a chance to seek parole after 15 years, and juveniles will also be given the opportunity for a second look hearing Jill Tucker and Joaquin Palomino, “Vanishing Violence,”, Jeremy Loudenback, “L.A. 2019. For a history of California’s Division of Juvenile Justice, see Maureen Washburn and Renee Menart, Unmet Promises: Continued Violence & Neglect in California’s Division of Juvenile Justice (San Francisco, CA: Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, 2019), https://perma.cc/6L6C-6BZE. Senate committee expected to consider juvenile justice reform bill Wednesday A Senate committee will consider legislation Wednesday aimed at creating better outcomes for youth in Alabama’s juvenile justice system by reducing the number of youth placed in state detention for low-level offenses. Tel: 202-624-5400 | Fax: 202-737-1069, Research, Editorial, Legal and Committee Staff, E-Learning | Staff Professional Development, Communications, Financial Services and Interstate Commerce, Copyright 2020 by National Conference of State Legislatures. Josh Rovner, “Juvenile Life Without Parole: An Overview,” The Sentencing Project, July 23, 2019, https://perma.cc/JRG4-E8MM; and Office of Governor Gavin Newsom, “Governor Newsom Announces His Intention to End Juvenile Imprisonment in California as We Know It,” press release (Sacramento, CA: Office of Governor Gavin Newsom, January 22, 2019), https://perma.cc/4Q78-98UF. Two states, Colorado and Nebraska, now have automatic expungement provisions. 21 There has already been success: a 25 percent drop between 2017 and 2019 in the number of youth held on any given day, and a 24 percent drop in total admissions of youth to detention. Campaign for Youth Justice, “2019 Legislative Reforms After Raise the Age,” press release (Washington, DC: Campaign for Youth Justice, May 20, 2019). Juvenile Justice Reform Juvenile Justice Reform. The committee is tasked with: The Biden Campaign outlined the following initiatives in 2019: Push for more funding under the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act. The overrepresentation of Indigenous peoples in the criminal justice system was top of mind for us and factored into nearly every piece of law reform that we tabled. Finally, the law also requires the DYS to develop a reinvestment plan to redirect savings realized from reductions in the number of secure confinements to community-based services. Mississippi clarified the record sharing requirements of the home school district when a student is detained. In lauding the decision to decarcerate, advocates noted that while the city’s population is only 5 percent Black, 60 percent of the children held in juvenile hall are Black. A 2018 investigation by the San Francisco Chronicle found that 39 of 43 facilities were less than half full, and some were nearly vacant—such as Nevada County, which incarcerated five youth in a building designed for 60. But some problems seemed intractable: the year saw the most mass shootings on record, and the justice system remains marked by stark racial disparities. Tel: 303-364-7700 | Fax: 303-364-7800, 444 North Capitol Street, N.W., Suite 515 The new Department of Youth and Community Restoration, to be established in July 2020, will include a training institute for corrections officers and an internal oversight division. The cop takes on youth justice reform “Transforming our juvenile justice system also means shifting the culture within our probation department,” Gonzales said early in his tenure. Colorado Governor Jared Polis signed the Juvenile Justice Reform Act (Senate Bill 108) on May 28—a crucial step toward aligning the state’s juvenile justice system with what research shows works to improve outcomes for youth, strengthen public safety, and efficiently use resources. Young offenders ages 15 to 17 accused of serious crimes are no longer automatically tried in adult court. The Juvenile Justice Reform Committee was established per Senate Bill19-108 to enact policy recommendations that aim to strengthen public safety and improve outcomes for youth in the juvenile justice system. Level of judicial review before transferring young people tried in adult court who ’ s juvenile justice reform supports development. 2014, the hard work of reform really begins as Arkansas implements new. During confinement, trial or transport reforming their youth justice systems or if a parent has provided permission. 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